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This complicates absolute calibration, as effective attenuation is a function of both the X-ray spectrum and the properties of the scan object. It also leads to beam-hardening artifacts: changes in image gray levels caused by preferential attenuation of low-energy X-rays. Hide The dominant physical processes responsible for X-ray attenuation for most laboratory X-ray dating in texas x ray pictures are photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering.
Photoelectric absorption occurs when the total energy of an incoming X-ray photon is transferred to an inner electron, causing the electron to be ejected. In general for geological materials, the photoelectric effect is the dominant attenuation mechanism at low X-ray energies, up to approximately keV, after which Compton scatter predominates.
As a result, low-energy X-rays are more sensitive to differences in composition than high-energy ones, but are also attenuated much more quickly, limiting the thickness of high-density material that can be penetrated and imaged with them. Thus, these two minerals can be differentiated in CT imagery if the mean X-ray energy used is low enough, but at higher energies they are nearly indistinguishable.
Hide There are a number of methods by which the X-ray attenuation data can be converted into an image, some proprietary.